Camera shoots and recordings on location and in the studio, video and audiotape editing, transmitting and receiving broadcasts, managing electronic information and graphics, and equipment and tape maintenance are all part of the television and radio production process. For big network and cable corporations, smaller stations, and production companies, broadcast engineers and technicians produce pre-taped and live broadcasts. Camera operator, sound person, tape editor, computer operator, maintenance engineer, news broadcaster, and other television and radio artists are among the most common jobs.
Broadcasting and related operations can take place in a variety of locations, including remote locations, studios, and other maintenance and specialist shops. Employees may be exposed to a variety of workplace risks, including poor indoor air quality, poor workplace design, and low-frequency electromagnetic radiation (since microwave technology is used to transmit and receive broadcasts, and the density of electronic equipment produces relatively high levels of low-frequency energy fields). To safeguard operators from these fields, proper shielding and device placement are smart procedures.
Precautions and Risks
For networks and local stations, roving camera and audio crews cover news and special events. Crews bring everything they’ll need for the broadcast to the location, including the camera, sound recorder, lighting, tripod, and electrical wires. Since the introduction of lightweight cameras and sound recorders, the equipment can now be operated by a single person. Trips, slips, and falls, as well as physical stress, are all potential risks. Injuries and deaths can occur as a result of riots and battles. The risk of major injuries and illnesses among the crew is increased by bad weather, crowds, natural calamities, and rugged terrain.
The risk can be mitigated by analysing the area for the possibility for violence and establishing safe operating locations. Personal protection equipment, such as bullet-resistant jackets and helmets, may be required. Musculoskeletal stress can be reduced with enough manpower, material-handling equipment, and safe lifting methods.
Sporting events and other special events, such as golf tournaments and car races, are frequently shot from elevated platforms and scaffolds. Positioning equipment and persons is also done with the use of motorised lifts and cranes. These structures and machines are similar to those used in general building construction and motion picture production, and they pose similar risks, such as falling from the structure, being struck by falling objects, being struck by lightning in open areas, and being electrocuted by overhead power lines and live electrical equipment.
Productions in the studio
Employees operate cameras, sound equipment, and special effects equipment in a familiar environment in studio projects. Musculoskeletal strains, electrical risks, noise (particularly in rock radio studios), and exposure to theatrical smokes and fogs are among the hazards, which are comparable to those outlined in motion picture production. Preventive measures include proper ergonomic design of work spaces and equipment, electrical protections, sound level control, careful selection of smokes and fogs, and enough ventilation.
Editing, management, and archiving of films
Video and audiotapes must be modified before being broadcast. The conditions will vary depending on the size of the facility, however it is normal to have multiple editing procedures running at the same time. Editing work necessitates a high level of concentration on the content, and editing rooms can be noisy, crowded, and dimly lighted, with poor indoor air quality and electrical risks. The space and equipment may be designed in an inefficient manner, and jobs may be repetitive. There may be a risk of noise and fire. Space, lighting, ventilation, soundproofing, and electrical safety are all important aspects of workstation design. Old film storage necessitates special examination and handling processes. Some production businesses have vintage cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) films in their libraries. Although these films are no longer manufactured, those that remain in storage pose a serious fire and life hazard. Nitrocellulose is easily combustible and explosive.
Shops for repairs
Cameras, recorders, editing machines, and other broadcasting equipment are maintained by technicians and engineers, who work in similar conditions to their industrial counterparts. Electronic parts and electrical contacts are cleaned with low-residue organic solvents such as freons, acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, and methylene chloride. Welding, soldering, and power tools are used to repair metal components. Inhalation of solvent vapours and metal fumes, skin contact with solvents, fire, and machine risks are all potential hazards. All conceivable protections include the use of safer materials, local exhaust ventilation for solvent vapours and fumes from welding and soldering, and machine guards.